October 21, 1895, Republic of Formosa was destroyed by Japan. Japanese army defeated the Qing troops easily in North Taiwan, but encountered difficulties in the South. The reason was the Southern defense troops were mainly organized by the local defense volunteers and they were tough in the war. When Japan settled Taiwan, the colonial government adopted the existent social organization "pao-chia" system to eliminate the potential anti-Japanese arms, as well as utilized it as an effective tool of ruling. For details you may refer to our research finding: Hung Chiu-fen, "The Pao-chia System in Taiwan, 1895-1903".
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