October 27, 1931, the national counsel decided to have National Institute of Compilation and Translation established. National Institute of Compilation and Translation played an important role in the compilations of the texbook, while textbook is an essential media to shape moder state and provide education of modern knowledge. Historians of various countries are all paying great attentions to the issue. The relavant researches about China, you may refer to our research finding: Peter Zarrow, "Enlightening 'New Histography', the history textbook in the transition period", in Wang Fan-sen ed. The Transition Period in the Modern Chinese Intellectual History: Essays for Professor Zhang Hao's 70th Birthday; "Robert Culp, Articulating Citizenship: Civic Education and Student Politics in Southeastern China, 1912-1940."
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