January 1, 1912, Sun Yat-sen arrived in Nanjing from Shanghai to assume the office of temporary president. The day was the first day of the first year of ROC. After the Qing Empire, China needed a rather long time for accommodation to conceptually accept the great transformation of the national form. For details, you may refer to our research finding: the winning book of the First Scholarly Monograph Award in the Humanities and Social Sciences, Academia Sinica: Peter Zarrow, After Empire: The Conceptual Transformation of the Chinese State, 1885-1924.
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