January 22, 1949, Fu Zuoyi, who defended Beiping, signed a peace concession agreement with CCP, and the Nationalist army retreated from the city so that the Communist army could seize the city without fighting. Since the late Qing, Beijing only suffered partial plunders during the second Opium War and the Eight Nation Alliance. Unlike many other cities in China, Beijing did not encounter decisive destructions in great wars, so that it could maintain the scene as an ancient capital in genreal. Regarding the image formation of Beijing as a Capital, you may refer to our research finding: Yu-chih Lai,“Picturing Empire: Illustrations of Official Tribute at the Qianlong Court and the Making of the Imperial Capital”.
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