March 27, 1917, 11 political groups under Duan Qirui organized "Zhonghe Club". This is the forerunner of the famous "Anfu club". Anfu Club was in fact a political party in the early Republic. Regarding its functioning and failure, you may refer to our research finding: Chang Peng-yuan, "The Anfu National Assembly Election: On Corruption as One Big Stumbling-block to Democracy".
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