Late Qing Cartoon, June 21, 1870, Tianjin Massacre broke out. one of the most important "missionary incidents" of the late Qing Dynasty, involved attacks on French Catholic priests and nuns, violent belligerence from French diplomats, and armed foreign intervention in Tientsin (Pinyin 'Tianjin') in 1870. The incident marked an end to comparative cooperation between foreign powers and the Tongzhi Manchu court, and adversely affected the ongoing renegotiation of theTreaties of Tientsin, first signed in 1858.For details, refer to our publications: Lü Shih-chi'angThe Origin and Cause of the Anti-Christian Movement by Chinese Officials and Gentry, 1860-1874and Archives on Missionary affairs and Missionary Cases
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