June 12, 1837, Britain insisted to contact directly with Canton government without through the Thirteen Factories. The so-called factories were officially granted monopolized organization, attached with diplomatic tasks. Other than unwilling to directly deal with foreigners, another essential reason why Qing insisted the factories system was that the Imperial house could gain profits from them easier. For details you may refer to our research finding: Lai Hui-min, "From Gewu zhizhi to Kexue and Shengchanli: A Study of Knowledge Systems and Cultural Relationships from the Perspective of Intellectual History".
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